Education has been hailed in Peru and internationally as a key institution for economic growth and personal development. While Peru has achieved great advances in terms of access and enrolment, there are many challenges associated with achieving high levels of ‘learning for all’. Overall, the Young Lives data show that children in the Younger Cohort (age 12 in 2013) are achieving better results than the Older Cohort children at the same age (in 2006). However, children from indigenous families, who were born in rural areas, are relatively poor, or whose mothers did not complete primary education tend to have poorer learning outcomes, even before they start primary school. Many of these children attend public schools in rural areas which are less well equipped than schools in urban areas. Reversing this situation requires early investments in children and their schools, so that they are better prepared to start formal education and can progress as expected, as well as sustained investments throughout their education.