There is ample evidence in the existing literature to show increased enrolment in school but mere achieving universalization of education in terms of enrolment may not be sufficient; rather there is a need for the completion of primary education with quality. Understanding the classroom processes is vital for improving the quality of education. It is thus crucial to critically examine the teaching-learning processes and the activities of teachers and children in the classrooms and in the schools for a comprehensive understanding of the quality of education. The interaction of the teachers and students, attitude of the children towards schooling, presence and absence of teachers in the prescribed class hours, and the activities of teachers and students during the teaching hours is vital in the learning process. But unfortunately and for many reasons, there is very limited evidence on these issues and the present study tries to fill this gap with the help of school based component of the Young Lives study in the undivided Andhra Pradesh.